Temperature Sensor

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    This project uses IC LM35 as a sensor for detecting accurate centigrade temperature. Linearity defines how well over a range of temperature a sensor’s output consistently changes. Unlike thermistor, Linearity of a precision IC Sensors are very good of 0.5°C accuracy and has wide temperature range. its output voltage is linearly proportional to the Celsius (Centigrade) temperature.

    The LM35 is rated to operate over a -55° to +150°C temperature range.It draws only 60 µA from its supply, it has very low self-heating, less than 0.1°C in still air. LM35 Operates from 4 to 30 volts.

    Output of IC is 10mv/degree centigrade for eg if the output of sensor is 280 mV then temperature is 28 degree C. so by using a Digital multimeter we can easily calculate the degree temperature. For trigger point you should set the voltage of pin 2 of IC 741 by using preset or potentiometer.
    Our aim of this project is not to construct a thermometer but to activate or deactivate a device at a particular margin temperature. For simplicity we have used 2 LED for indication of both low (Green) and high (Red) temperature.

    Working: The output of IC2 increases in proportion to the temperature by 10 mV per degree. This varying voltage is feed to a comparator IC 741 (OP Amplifier). OP Amplifier are among the most widely used electronic devices today.The op-amp is one type of differential amplifier. It has two input inverting (-) and non-inverting (+) and one output pin. We have used IC741 as non-inverting amplifier which means pin 3 is the input and the output is not reversed. This circuit amplifies the difference between its input terminals.

    As a comparator, Bistable output of an op amplifier is as follows :-

    Part list:
    IC LM35, IC LM741
    Resistance: 10K Ohms, 470 Ohms X 2Pcs
    Preset or P.O.T of 2K Ohms
    LED 2pcs (Red and Green)
    9V Battery with Snap
    Switch, wire
    *By making this Temperature Sensor Project, student will be capable of making many similar project i.e Automatic room heater controller, determine hotness of Tea or Coffee to avoid burning your tongue, Automatic Fan Controller etc.

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